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Casimir C. Akoh, Distinguished Research Professor

Casimir C. AkohB.S., University of Nigeria
M.S., Washington State University
Ph.D., Washington State University

Department of Food Science & Technology
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602-7610

Phone: (706) 542-1067
Email: cakoh@uga.edu

Google Scholar: Google Scholar Page

Description of Research Interests

Food Chemistry: Lipid biotechnology/chemistry/biochemistry. We work on the chemical and enzymatic modification of lipids, including the production of structured lipids and various fat analogs. We then study chemical, physical and physiological properties of modified lipids and their food applications. We design fat analogs for use in infant formula, trans-free margarines, trans-free spreads, trans-free shortenings, cosmetics, neutraceuticals, or as food ingredients. We also isolate, characterize, and assess the antioxidant capacities of phytochemicals.

Awards and Honors from Professional Societies

Courses Taught

FDST 6500/8500: Graduate Seminars
FDST 8010: Food Lipids
FDST 8100: Food Carbohydrates

Selected Recent Publications

Zhang, S. and Akoh, C.C. 2020. Enzymatic synthesis of 1-o-galloylglycerol: Characterization and determination of its antioxidant properties. Food Chem. 305:1-9 (125479).

Yesiltas, B., Garcia-Moreno, P.J., Sørensen, A.D.M., Akoh, C.C. and Jacobsen, C. 2019. Physical and oxidative stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with sodium caseinate and phosphatidylcholine as emulsifiers. Food Chem. 276:110-118.

Hermund, D, Jacobsen, C., Chronakis, I.S., Pelayo, A., Yu, S., Busolo, M., Lagaron, J.M., Jónsdóttir, R., Kristinsson, H.G., Akoh, C.C., and Garcia-Moreno, P.J. 2019. Stabilization of fish oil-loaded electrosprayed capsules with seaweed and commercial natural antioxidants: effect on the oxidative stability of capsule-enriched mayonnaise. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 121:1-10 (1800396).

Jacobsen, C., Sorensen, A-D.M., Holdt S.L., Akoh, C.C. and Hermund, D.B. 2019. Source, extraction, characterization and applications of novel antioxidants from seaweed. Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (invited review)10:541-568.

Willett, S. A. and Akoh, C.C. 2019. Physicochemical characterization of organogels prepared from menhaden oil or structured lipid with phytosterol blend or sucrose stearate/ascorbyl palmitate blend. Food Funct. 10:180-190.

Jin, J., Akoh, C.C., Jin, Q. and Wang, X. 2019. Improving heat and fat bloom stabilities of “dark chocolate” by addition of mango kernel fat-based chocolate fats. J. Food Eng. 246:33-41.

Jin, J., Jin, Q., Akoh, C.C. and Wang, X. 2019. Mango kernel fat fractions as potential healthy food ingredients: A review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 59:1794-1801.

Qi, J., Wang, X., Wang, X., Akoh, C.C. and Jin, Q. 2019. Effect of oil type and emulsifier on oil absorption of steam-and-fried instant noodles. J. Oleo Sci. 68:559-566.

Willett, S. A. and Akoh, C.C. and Martini, S. 2019. Enzymatic modification of menhaden oil to incorporate caprylic and/or stearic acid. J. Am. Oil Chem. Chem. 96:761-775.

Zhang, S. and Akoh, C.C. 2019. Solvent-free enzymatic synthesis of 1-o-galloylglycerol optimized by the Taguchi method. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 96:877-889.

Willett, S.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2019. Physicochemical characterization of yellow cake prepared with structured lipid oleogels. J. Food Sci. 84:1390-1399.

Willett, S.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2019. Encapsulation of menhaden oil structured lipid oleogels in alginate microparticles. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 116:1-8 (108566). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2019.108566.

Lai, O.M., Lee, Y.Y., Phuah, E.T. and Akoh, C.C. 2019. Lipases/Esterase: Properties and Industrial Applications. In “Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry.” (Melton, Shahidi, Varelis, eds.), Elsevier Inc., Waltham, MA, p.158-167.

Jin, J., Jin, Q., Wang, X. and Akoh, C.C. 2019. High sn-2 docosahexaenoic acid lipids for brain benefits and their enzymatic synthesis: A review. Eng. (in press).

Wei, W., Sun, C., Wang, X., Jin, Q., Xu, X., Akoh, C.C., and Wang, X. 2019. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of sn-2palmitate: A review. Eng. (in press).

Liang, P., Li, R., Sun, H., Zhang, M., Cheng, W., Chen, L., Cheng, X. and Akoh, C.C. 2018. Phospholipids composition and molecular species of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) roe. Food Chem. 245:806-811.

Kleiner, L. and Akoh, C.C. 2018. Structured Lipids in Commercial Applications. In “Lipid Modification by Enzymes and Engineered Microbes.” (Bornscheuer, ed.), Elsevier (Academic Press) and AOCS Press (American oil Chemists’ Society), p. 179-202.

Willett, S.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2018. Application of Taguchi method in the enzymatic modification of menhaden oil to incorporate capric acid. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 95:299-311.

Jin, J., Jin, Q., Akoh, C.C. and Wang, X. 2018. Mango kernel fat fractions as potential healthy food ingredients: A review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 59:1794-1801.

Jie, L., Qi, C., Sun, J., Yu, R., Wang, X., Korma, S.A. Xiang, J., Jin, Q., Akoh, C.C. and Wang X. 2018. The impact of lactation and gestational age on the composition of branched-chain fatty acids in human breast milk. Food Funct. 9:1747-1754.

Lai, O.M., Lee, Y.Y., Phuah, E.T. and Akoh, C.C. 2018. Lipases/Esterase: Properties and Industrial Applications. In “Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry.” (Varelis, ed.), Elsevier Inc., Waltham, MA, p.158-167.

Pande, G. and Akoh, C.C. 2018. Structured Lipids and Health. In “Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products.” (Shahidi, ed.) 7th John Wiley & Sons, Limited, West Sussex, UK, (in press).

Kadamne, J.T., Ifeduba, E.A., Akoh, C.C. and Martini, S. 2017. Sonocrystallization of interesterified fats with 20 and 30% C16:0 at sn-2 position. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 94:3-18.

Jin, G., Kim, J., Lee, Y., Akoh, C.C., Chun, H.S., Ahn, S. and Kim, B.H. 2017. A nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy approach to discriminate the geographic origin of roasted Asian sesame oils. J. Oleo Sci. 66:337-344.

Moore, M.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2017. Enzymatic interesterification of coconut and high oleic sunflower oils for edible film application. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 94:567-576.

Zhang, Y., Zhai, X., Gao, L., Jin, J., Zhong, Q., Sun, C., Yan, L., Liu, R., Akoh, C.C., Jin, Q. and Wang, X. 2017. Quality of wood-pressed rapeseed oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 94:767-777.

Şahin Yeşilçubuk, N. and Akoh, C.C. 2017. Biotechnological and novel approaches for designing structured lipids intended for infant nutrition. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (Invited review). J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 94:1005-1034.

Kadamne, J.T., Ifeduba, E.A., Akoh, C.C. and Martini, S. 2017. Sonocrystallization of interesterified fats with 20 and 30% of stearic acid at sn-2 position and their physical blends. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 94:1045-1062.

Pastrana-Bonilla, E., Akoh, C.C. and Cerquera, N.E. 2017. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in muscadine grapes by HPLC and HPLC-MS. ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 12:626-631.

Nielsen, P.M. and Akoh, C.C. 2017. Biodiesel from low-quality feed stocks. Inform. 28(10): 23-27. doi.10.21748/inform.10.2017.23.

Akoh, C.C. 2017.  Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology. Fourth Edition, Revised and Expanded. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 1047 pages.

Sahin-Yesilcubuk, N. and Akoh, C.C. 2017. Encapsulation Technologies for Lipids. In “Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology.” (Akoh, ed.), Fourth Edition, Revised and Expanded. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, p. 453-476.

Lai, O.M., Phuah, E.T., Lee, Y.Y., Akoh, C.C., and Weete, J.D. 2017. Microbial Lipases. In “Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology.” (Akoh, ed.), Fourth Edition, Revised and Expanded. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, p. 853-898.

Akoh, C.C. and Kim, B.H. 2017. Structured Lipids. In “Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology.” (Akoh, ed.), Fourth Edition, Revised and Expanded. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, p. 941-972.

Pande, G. and Akoh, C.C. 2016. Pomegranate Cultivars (Punica granatum L.). In ‘Nutritional Composition of Fruit Cultivars.” (Preedy and Simmonds, eds.), Academic Press, p.667-689.

Zou, L., Pande, G. and Akoh, C.C. 2016. Infant formula fat analogs and human milk fat: new focus on infant developmental needs. Ann. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (invited review), 7:139-165.

Sproston, M.J. and Akoh, C.C. 2016. Enzymatic modification of anhydrous milkfat with n-3 and 6 fatty acids for potential use in infant formula: comparison of methods. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 93:251-265.

Ifeduba, E.A., Martini, S. and Akoh, C.C. 2016. Enzymatic interesterification of high oleic sunflower oil and tripalmitin or tristearin. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 93:61-67.

Li, G., Wu, S., Wang, L. and Akoh, C.C. 2016. Concentration, dietary exposure and health risk estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in youtiao, a Chinese traditional fried food. Food Control 59:328-336.

Ifeduba, E.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2016. Microencapsulation of stearidonic acid soybean oil in Maillard reaction-modified complex coacervates. Food Chem. 199:524-532.

Pande, G. and Akoh, C.C. 2016. Enzymatic synthesis of tyrosol-based phenolipids: characterization and antioxidant activities. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 93:329-337.

Álvarez, C.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2016.  Enzymatic production of high sn-2 DHA and ARA modified oils for the formulation of infant formula fat analogs. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 93:383-395.

Álvarez, C.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2016. Preparation of infant formula fat analog containing capric acid and enriched with DHA and ARA at the sn-2 position. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 93:531-542.

Jiang, X, Wu, S., Zhou, Z. and Akoh, C.C. 2016. Physicochemical properties and volatile profiles of cold-pressed Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim seed oils. Int. J. Food Prop. 19:1765-1775.

Sproston, M.J., Ifeduba, E.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2016. Structured lipids for food and nutraceutical applications. AOCS Lipid Library (invited review). August 30, pages 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.21748/lipidlibrary.41522

Sproston, M.J. and Akoh, C.C. 2016. Antioxidative effects of a glucose-cysteine Maillard reaction product on the oxidative stability of a structured lipid in a complex food emulsion. J. Food Sci. 81:C2923-C2931.

Zou, L. and Akoh, C.C. 2015. Antioxidant activities of annatto and palm tocotrienol-rich fractions in fish oil and structured lipid-based infant formula emulsion. Food Chem. 168:504-511.

Zou, L. and Akoh, C.C. 2015. Oxidative stability of structured lipid-based infant formula emulsion: effect of antioxidants. Food Chem. 178:1-9.

Kim, B.H. and Akoh, C.C. 2015. Recent research trends on the enzymatic synthesis of structured lipids. J. Food Sci. 80:C1713-C1724.

Ifeduba, E.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2015. Microencapsulation of stearidonic acid soybean oil in complex coacervates modified for enhanced stability. Food Hydrocolloids 51:136-145.

Álvarez, C.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2015. Enzymatic synthesis of infant formula fat analog enriched with capric acid. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 92:1003-1014.

Li, R., Sabir, J.S.M., Baeshen, N.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2015. Enzymatic synthesis of refined olive oil-based structured lipids containing omega-3 and -6 fatty acids for potential application in infant formula J. Food Sci. 80: H2578-2584.

Kim, S., Kim, I.-H., Akoh, C.C. and Kim, B.H. 2014. Enzymatic production of cocoa butter equivalents high in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearin in continuous packed bed reactors. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 91:747-757.

Ifeduba, E.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2014. Modification of stearidonic acid soybean oil by immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase to incorporate caprylic acid. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 91:953-965.

Akoh, C.C. 2014. Professional pathways. Inform 24:384-386.

Wu, S., Xu, T. and Akoh, C.C. 2014. Effect of roasting on the volatile constituents of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds. J. Food Drug Anal. 22:310-317.

Li, R., Pande, G., Sabir, J.S.M., Baeshen, N.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2014. Enrichment of refined olive oil with palmitic and docosahexaenoic acids to produce human milk fat analogue. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 91:1377-1385.

El-Domyati, F.M., Abdel Aziez, A.Z., Atef, A., Elhalwagi, A., Sabir, J.S.M., Ramadan, A.M., Gadalla, N.O., Edris, S., Baeshen, M.N., Hajrah, N.H., Al-Kordy, M.A., Al-Hajar, A.S.M.,  Akoh, C.C., and Bahieldin. 2014. Functional genomic analysis for  overproduction of key terpenoid indole alkaloids in mature leaf of Catharanthus roseus. Life Sci. J.11:1213-1220.

Kleiner, L. and Akoh, C.C. 2014. Lípidos estructurados en leches infantilespara una mejor salud y nutrición. (Structured lipids in infant formula for better nutrition and health). Aceites y Grasas  3:462-468.

Li, H., Akoh, C.C., Li, J., Rao, H., and Deng, Z. 2014. trans Fatty Acids. In “Food Safety Chemistry: Toxicant Occurrence, Analysis and Mitigation.” (Yu, Wang, and Sun, eds.),  CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, p. 133-155.

Pande, G., Nagachinta, S., and Akoh, C. C. 2014. An Overview of the Composition of Bottle Feeds. In “Handbook of Dietary and Nutritional Aspects of Bottle Feeding.” (Preedy, Watson, and Zibadi, eds.), Wageningen Academic Publishers: Wageningen, The Netherlands p. 191-208.

Pande, G., Sabir, J.S.M., Baeshen, N.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2013. Enzymatic synthesis of extra virgin olive oil based infant formula fat analogues containing ARA and DHA: one-stage and two-stage syntheses. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:10590-10598.

Pande, G. and Akoh, C.C. 2013. Enzymatic synthesis of trans-free structured margarine fat analogues with high stearate soybean oil and palm stearin and their characterization LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 50:232-239.

Turan, D., Yesilcubuk, N.S., and Akoh, C.C. 2013. Enrichment of sn-2 position of hazelnut oil with palmitic acid: optimization by response surface methodology. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 50:766-772.

Pande, G., Akoh, C. C., and Shewfelt, R. L. 2013. Utilization of enzymatically interesterified cottonseed oil and palm strearin-based structured lipid in the production of trans-free margarine. Biocat. Agric. Biotechnol. 2:76-84.

Jeon, H, Kim, I.H., Lee, C., Choi, H.D., Kim, B.H., and Akoh, C.C. 2013. Discrimination of origin of sesame oils using fatty acid and lignin profiles in combination with canonical discriminant analysis. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 90:337-347.

Ifeduba, E.A., Awachie, M.N., Sabir, J.S.M., and Akoh, C.C. 2013. Fatty acid composition of Irvingia gabonensis and Treculia africana seed lipids and phospholipids. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 90:517-528.

Nagachinta, S. and Akoh, C.C. 2013. Production and characterization of DHA and GLA-enriched structured lipid from palm olein for infant formula use. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 90:1141-1149.

Zou, L. and Akoh, C.C. 2013. Identification of tocopherols and tocotrienols, and their fatty acid esters in residues and distillates of structured lipids purified by short path distillation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:238-246.

Pande, G. and Akoh, C.C. 2013. Enzymatic modification of lipids for trans-free margarine. Lipid Technol. 25:31-33.

Zou, L. and Akoh, C.C. 2013. Characterisation and optimisation of physical and oxidative stability of structured lipid-based infant formula emulsion: effects of emulsifiers and biopolymer thickeners. Food Chem. 141:2486-2494.

Ifeduba, E.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2013. Chemoenzymatic method for producing stearidonic acid concentrates from stearidonic acid soybean oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 90:1011-1022.

Liu, M., Yang, F., Shi, H., Akoh, C.C. and Yu, L. 2013. Preparative separation of triterpene alcohol ferulates from rice bran oil using high performance counter-current chromatography. Food Chem. 139:919-924.

Zhou, Q., Shi, H., Liu, J., Zhang, X., Gao, B., Lu, W., Akoh, C.C. and Yu, L. 2013. Identification and quantification of phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory, cellular antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of twelve Plantago species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:6693-6702.

Nagachinta, S. and Akoh, C.C. 2013. Synthesis and incorporation of structured lipid enriched with omega fatty acids and sn-2 palmitic acid in powdered infant formula. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:4455-4463.

Pande, G., Sabir, J.S.M., Baeshen, N.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2013. Synthesis of infant formula fat analogs enriched with DHA from extra virgin olive oil and tripalmitin. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 90:1311-1318.

Nagachinta, S. and Akoh, C.C. 2013. Spray-dried structured lipid containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for use in infant formulas. J

Vazquez, L. and Akoh, C.C. 2012. Enrichment of stearidonic acid in modified soybean oil by low temperature crystallisation. Food Chem. 130:147-155.

Nagachinta, S. and Akoh, C.C. 2012. Enrichment of palm olein with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzymatic acidolysis. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 46:29-35.

Decker, E.A., Akoh, C.C., and Wilkes R.S. 2012. Incorporation of (n-3) fatty acids in foods: challenges and opportunities. J. Nutr. 142:610S-613S.

Deckelbaum, R.J., Calder, P.C., Harris, W.S., Akoh, C.C., Maki, K.C., Whelan, J., Banz, W.J., and Kennedy, E. 2012. Conclusions and recommendations from the symposium, heart healthy omega-3s for food: stearidonic acid (SDA) as a sustainable choice. J. Nutr. 142:641S-643S.

Kleiner-Shuhler, L., Vazquez, L., and Akoh, C.C. 2012. Increasing stearidonic acid (SDA) in modified soybean oil by lipase-mediated acidolysis. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 89:1267-1275.

Rajasekar, D., Akoh, C.C., Martino, K.G., and MacLean, D.D. 2012. Physico-chemical characteristics of juice extracted by blender and mechanical press from pomegranate cultivars grown in Georgia. Food Chem. 133:1383-1393.

Pande, G. and Akoh, C.C. 2012. Enzymatic synthesis of trans-free structured margarine fat analogues using stearidonic acid soybean and high stearate soybean oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 89:1473-1484.

Pande, G. and Akoh, C.C. 2012. Structured lipids in nutraceutical formulations. Inform 23:50-64.

Vazquez, L., Kleiner, L., and Akoh, C.C. 2012. Concentration of stearidonic acid in free fatty acids form from modified soybean oil by selective esterification with dodecanol. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 89:1655-1662.

Turan, D., Yesilcubuk, N.S., and Akoh, C.C. 2012. Production of human milk fat analogue containing docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60:4402-4407.

Kleiner, L., Vazquez, L., and Akoh, C.C. 2012. Lipase-catalyzed concentration of stearidonic acid in modified soybean oil by partial hydrolysis. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 89:1999-2010.

Akoh, C.C. 2012. Biocatalysis: modifying lipids to advance food industry and human health. Inform 445-449.

Pande, G., Akoh, C. C., and Shewfelt, R. L. 2012. Production of trans-free margarine with stearidonic acid soybean and high stearate soybean oils-based structured lipid. J. Food Sci. C1203-1210.

Kleiner-Shuhler, L., Vazquez, L., and Akoh, C.C. 2011. Purification of stearidonic acid from modified soybean oil by argentation silica gel column chromatography. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88:1161-1171.

Teichert, S.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2011. Stearidonic acid soybean oil enriched with palmitic acid at the sn-2 position by enzymatic interesterification for use as human milk fat analogues. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:5692-5701.

Vazquez, L. and Akoh, C.C. 2011. Concentration of stearidonic acid in free fatty acid and ethyl ester forms from modified soybean oil by winterization. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88:1775-1785.

Gold, I.L., Ukhun, M.E., and Akoh, C.C. 2011. Characterization of eutectic compositions of restructured palm olein, palm kernel oil and their mixtures. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88:1659-1667.

Teichert, S.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2011. Characterization of stearidonic acid soybean oil enriched with palmitic acid produced by solvent-free enzymatic interesterification. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:9588-9595.

Teichert, S.A. and Akoh, C.C. 2011. Modifications of stearidonic acid soybean oil by enzymatic acidolysis for the production of human milk fat analogues. J Agric. Food Chem. 59:13300-13310.