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BIG NEWS – 8 Species Added to P. ramorum Host List!!!

FEDERAL ORDER 

Domestic quarantine for Phytophthora ramorum 

DA-2012-03 

January 25, 2012 

This Federal Order is issued pursuant to the regulatory authority provided by the Plant Protection Act of June 20, 2000, as amended, Section 412(a), 7 U.S.C. 7712(a), which authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to prohibit or restrict the movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant part, or article, if the Secretary determines the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent the dissemination of a plant pest within the United States and is likewise issued pursuant to the regulations promulgated under the Plant Protection Act found at 7 CFR §301.92 et seq.

The Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) considers it necessary in order to prevent the spread and dissemination of P. ramorum, to add eight new plant species to the list of associated plant taxa. Additionally, the APHIS administrator has determined it is necessary to move one currently regulated species Cinnamomum camphora from the list of associated plant taxa to the list of proven host plant taxa. The movement of nursery stock of these plant taxa from the States of California, Oregon, and Washington will now be regulated in accordance with this Federal Order and the P. ramorum regulations located at 7 CFR §301.92. Nurseries in the regulated states containing these newly listed plants must operate under a compliance agreement.

The State Regulatory Agencies in the United States, Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and the United Kingdom’s Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs, Food and Environment Research Agency (DEFRA /FERA) have identified additional plants associated with P. ramorum that were not previously recorded. Details on these detections are as follows:

Additions to Associated Plant Taxa: 

Ilex cornuta 

• Family: Aquifoliaceae

• Common names: Buford holly, Chinese holly, horned holly

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from USA

 

Illicium parviflorum 

• Family: Schisandraceae

• Common names: Yellow anise

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from USA

 

Larix kaempferi 

• Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)

• Common names: Japanese larch

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis, dieback and canker

• Notes: Report from United Kingdom, Ireland

 

Magnolia denudata 

• Family: Magnoliaceae (magnolia family)

• Common names: lily tree

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from Canada, United Kingdom

 

Mahonia nervosa 

• Family: Berberidaceae (Mahonia)

• Common names: Creeping Oregon grape

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from USA

 

Molinadendron sinaloense 

• Family: Hamamelidaceae

• Common names: nil

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from USA

 

Trachelospermum jasminoides 

• Family: Apocynaceae (milkweed family)

• Common names: Star jasmine, Confederate jasmine

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from USA

 

Veronica spicata Syn. Pseudolysimachion spicatum 

• Family: Scrophulariaceae

• Common names: Spiked speedwell

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from USA

 

Moved to the Proven Host Plant Taxa from Associated Host Plant Taxa: 

Cinnamomum camphora 

• Family: Lauraceae

• Common names: Camphor tree

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis, canker

• Notes: Report from USA from Landscape in California

 

Effective March 1, 2012 any nurseries within the regulated and quarantined areas containing these newly listed associated plants must be properly inspected, sampled and tested in order to be able to move any plants interstate.

————- For more information contact your state Department of Agriculture or your State Nursery Inspector —————–

Maple Shoot Borer: Biology and Management of a Prominent Nursery Pest

Sarah J. Vanek, University of Kentucky Extension Associate for Nursery Crop Production

 

Importance to the Nursery Industry

Maple shoot borer, Proteoterus aesculana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), also known by the common names maple tip moth and maple twig borer, is a key insect pest of young maple trees in nurseries. Larvae cause tip dieback and flagging by tunneling into young growing shoots. Researchers at the University of Kentucky found that in some fields of newly transplanted Acer rubrum bare-root liners, as many as 100% of the trees were infested and 22–36% suffered flagging in the terminal leader (Seagraves et al, 2008). Destruction of the terminal leader causes undesirable forking and requires establishment of a new central leader. This increases labor costs and leaves an unattractive crook in the tree even when performed successfully.

 

For the entire publication, please visit:

http://www.ca.uky.edu/entomology/entfacts/ef455.asp

New Boxwood disease informational webinar on Jan 5th

Webinar information:
On Thursday, January 5th at 11 am EST, NC State University will be hosting an ELLUMINATE LIVE webinar on Box Blight – a new disease to the US and recently found on boxwood in North Carolina, Virginia, and Connecticut. This webinar is intended for extension agents, interested parties and boxwood growers in North Carolina and surrounding states.
Dr. Ivors will speak for 45 minutes on this new boxwood disease in the U.S., followed by questions from the audience. Representatives from VA and CT also will make comments and address concerns in their states. The webinar will be recorded and made available for viewing at anytime after the webinar concludes at the same URL.
To participate, click on the link below.
http://go.ncsu.edu/box_blight_webinar
You can enter the session starting at 10 am EST. The webinar will begin at 11:00 am EST (and may last until 12:30 EST).
To test if your system is compatible with ELLUMINATE LIVE, visit the Configuration Room linked on http://go.ncsu.edu/elluminate_config

Soybean Cyst Nematode: A Potential Problem for Nursuries

Nicole Ward and Don Hershman, University of Kentucky Department of Plant Pathology

Win Dunwell, University of Kentucky Department of Horticulture

 

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most serious disease pest of soybean in the United States and results in an estimated $1 billion in losses annually. SCN is a microscopic roundworm (Heterodera glycines) that feeds on root of soybean and reduces its capacity to absorb water and nutrients. Yield losses of 30% or more are common where SCN-susceptible soybean varieties are grown and SCN levels are high. SCN was first discovered in Kentucky in 1957 in Fulton County but is now found in every Kentucky county in which soybean is grown commercially.

SCN causes a problem for field production nurseries because Canada and some states—for example, California— do not allow soils (in ball-andburlapped materials) to be imported without proof that the nursery stock comes from SCN-free counties. Other states, including Pennsylvania and New York, assume that the blanket statement “free from all pests” includes SCN. SCN survives in soil as long-lived cysts (Figure 1). The cysts can be spread by any means that spreads soil particles, including windblown soil; soil attached to roots of host or non-host plants; soil peds in bird droppings, seed bags, or stock feed; flood water; or farm and construction equipment.

Essentially anything that causes soil to be moved from one place to another can spread SCN cysts into previously un-infested soil. Quarantine restrictions are an attempt to limit the continued spread of the nematode or more aggressive types of SCN in places like Ontario, Canada, that already have an SCN problem.

To learn more – check out the following website:

Soybean Cyst Nematode: A Potential Problem for Nursuries
PDF: 368 kb, 4 pages

Suggested Plant Species for Sites with a History of Phytophthora Root Crown Rot

Authors:

Tom Creswell, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University

Kelly Ivors, Department of Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University

Mike Munster, Department of Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University 

——————–

Phytophthora is one genus within the group of “fungus-like” organisms known as oomycetes. Phytophthora species are capable of infecting a wide range of trees, shrubs, and bedding plants. Most plant-pathogenic species of Phytophthora cause root and crown rots and are able to persist for numerous years in soil. 

Chemical management of these diseases usually is impractical or not economical in landscapes. The following cultural management practices are recommended when Phytophthora root or crown rot has been diagnosed in a landscape.

• Remove severely affected plants.

• Prepare the site to ensure good drainage and organic matter content by adding pine bark to soil, raising beds, or planting on berms.

• Inspect all planting material and set only healthy plants into the landscape.

• Avoid overwatering and over-fertilization.

• Select plant species that are tolerant to Phytophthora when replacing plants lost to this pathogen.

Due to the large number of Phytophthora species and their wide host ranges, it is very difficult to make general recommendations about replacement plants for the landscape. The lists presented here were compiled based on published reports, Plant Disease and Insect Clinic records from North Carolina and neighboring states, and the expert opinion of many plant pathologists.

For full text, please visit:

http://go.ncsu.edu/phytophthorareplacementplants

Boxwood Blight: A New Disease of Boxwoods Recently Found in the Southeastern U.S.

 

Norm Dart1, Virginia State Plant Pathologist 

Mary Ann Hansen1 and Elizabeth Bush1, Extension Plant Pathologists 

Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services1, Virginia Tech

Boxwood blight (also called “box blight” in Europe), caused by the fungal pathogen Cylindrocladium buxicola, was reported for the first time in the U.S. at two North Carolina production nurseries in October, 2011. Boxwoods originating from an infected block of plants at one of the North Carolina nurseries were planted in two production fields in Virginia. The Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services are developing and implementing mitigation strategies aimed at aggressively removing the pathogen from infested fields and stopping the spread of this disease.

 

Read more at: http://www.ppws.vt.edu/~clinic/alerts/11-04-11_boxwood_blight_alert.pdf