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Diagnostics System for Crop History and Disorders in Greenhouses and Nurseries

Bodie Pennisi, Extension Horticulture Specialist, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, GA 30223      bpennisi@uga.edu
Paul Thomas, Extension Horticulture Specialist, 224 Hoke Smith Building, Athens, GA 30602    pathomas@uga.edu

This manual has been put together based upon consultation with Extension specialists and industry consultants with a great body of experience. Hundreds of greenhouse problems, and our experience with hundreds of business owners (as well as their responses to problems and the outcomes) have provided much insight into the best ways to handle problems, especially large scale losses. Based upon this experience, we recommend that each business owner decide in advance of implementation: 1) Who will be in charge of developing the records and documents required to maintain the information required for this system to work, and 2) Which management person will be given the ultimate responsibility/accountability for overseeing the diagnostic process, reporting the findings, implementing the recommendations from the owner/board, and finally, documenting the outcomes.

In general, the owners of most businesses (even small businesses with only five or more full time employees) are the least efficient people to handle the duties of record keeping, and absolutely the worst possible choice for handling the responsibilities of problem diagnosis. Ignoring the obvious impact an owner inquest has on employee morale, a major point to consider is how spending time on problem diagnosis might affect ongoing business. Most owners cannot afford to drop everything and dive into a production problem, although their emotions and attachments tell them to do so. The owner should be the one receiving the reports, taking recommendations from the staff, and formulating a response to the problem(s) based upon facts and recommendations. The likelihood the diagnosis will be carried out in a consistent manner increases dramatically by making this work a formal part of a manager’s duties, or by hiring a qualified consultant, rather than the owner taking on the work. This strategy also keeps the owner out of the emotional stresses problem diagnosis can generate. By keeping a clear mind and some distance from the problem diagnosis process, rational and effective decisions are more easily made. Owners will also find reading this document a bit easier if they decide in advance this is not work they will have to incorporate into their busy schedules. We respectfully offer this advice as perhaps the most important issue to be considered within this document.

For the full manual (publication) – visit:

Diagnostics System for Crop History and Disorders in Greenhouses and Nurseries – UGA Extension Publication B 1273

Maple Shoot Borer: Biology and Management of a Prominent Nursery Pest

Sarah J. Vanek, University of Kentucky Extension Associate for Nursery Crop Production

 

Importance to the Nursery Industry

Maple shoot borer, Proteoterus aesculana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), also known by the common names maple tip moth and maple twig borer, is a key insect pest of young maple trees in nurseries. Larvae cause tip dieback and flagging by tunneling into young growing shoots. Researchers at the University of Kentucky found that in some fields of newly transplanted Acer rubrum bare-root liners, as many as 100% of the trees were infested and 22–36% suffered flagging in the terminal leader (Seagraves et al, 2008). Destruction of the terminal leader causes undesirable forking and requires establishment of a new central leader. This increases labor costs and leaves an unattractive crook in the tree even when performed successfully.

 

For the entire publication, please visit:

http://www.ca.uky.edu/entomology/entfacts/ef455.asp

New Boxwood disease informational webinar on Jan 5th

Webinar information:
On Thursday, January 5th at 11 am EST, NC State University will be hosting an ELLUMINATE LIVE webinar on Box Blight – a new disease to the US and recently found on boxwood in North Carolina, Virginia, and Connecticut. This webinar is intended for extension agents, interested parties and boxwood growers in North Carolina and surrounding states.
Dr. Ivors will speak for 45 minutes on this new boxwood disease in the U.S., followed by questions from the audience. Representatives from VA and CT also will make comments and address concerns in their states. The webinar will be recorded and made available for viewing at anytime after the webinar concludes at the same URL.
To participate, click on the link below.
http://go.ncsu.edu/box_blight_webinar
You can enter the session starting at 10 am EST. The webinar will begin at 11:00 am EST (and may last until 12:30 EST).
To test if your system is compatible with ELLUMINATE LIVE, visit the Configuration Room linked on http://go.ncsu.edu/elluminate_config

Plant Material Shipments Federal and State Plant Protection Regulations Relevant to Your Nursery Business

Sarah J. Vanek, University of Kentucky Horticulture Department

 

Consider for a moment the major advancements in global trade that have developed in recent centuries. International shipments that once took months or even years to transport now reach their destination within hours or days. With regular use of airplanes, semi-trucks, trains, and giant freighters, and with major changes in global-trade policies, the world continually transports massive amounts of cargo around the globe every day.

With these shipments come living organisms that discreetly ride commodities, packaging materials, trucks, ships, and numerous other pathways before entering a foreign habitat. In the past century, countless alien species entered the United States, many of which have caused severe economic and environmental damage. Harmful non-native species are extremely diverse. They include, but are not limited to, insect pests such as Japanese beetle, emerald ash borer, or gypsy moth; weeds such as garlic mustard or spotted knapweed; and plant pathogens causing diseases such as sudden oak death or chestnut blight.

The level of economic or environmental damage sometimes caused by non-native organisms is alarming. Therefore, it is critical that individuals transporting plant materials as well as state and federal agencies that regulate these shipments remain diligent in preventing movement of harmful pests. Here is a basic explanation of some of the regulations that may apply to nursery businesses’ shipping activities.

For the complete publication, please visit:

Plant Material Shipments: Federal and State Plant Protection Regulations Relevant to Your Nursery Business
PDF: 568 kb, 4 pages

Soybean Cyst Nematode: A Potential Problem for Nursuries

Nicole Ward and Don Hershman, University of Kentucky Department of Plant Pathology

Win Dunwell, University of Kentucky Department of Horticulture

 

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most serious disease pest of soybean in the United States and results in an estimated $1 billion in losses annually. SCN is a microscopic roundworm (Heterodera glycines) that feeds on root of soybean and reduces its capacity to absorb water and nutrients. Yield losses of 30% or more are common where SCN-susceptible soybean varieties are grown and SCN levels are high. SCN was first discovered in Kentucky in 1957 in Fulton County but is now found in every Kentucky county in which soybean is grown commercially.

SCN causes a problem for field production nurseries because Canada and some states—for example, California— do not allow soils (in ball-andburlapped materials) to be imported without proof that the nursery stock comes from SCN-free counties. Other states, including Pennsylvania and New York, assume that the blanket statement “free from all pests” includes SCN. SCN survives in soil as long-lived cysts (Figure 1). The cysts can be spread by any means that spreads soil particles, including windblown soil; soil attached to roots of host or non-host plants; soil peds in bird droppings, seed bags, or stock feed; flood water; or farm and construction equipment.

Essentially anything that causes soil to be moved from one place to another can spread SCN cysts into previously un-infested soil. Quarantine restrictions are an attempt to limit the continued spread of the nematode or more aggressive types of SCN in places like Ontario, Canada, that already have an SCN problem.

To learn more – check out the following website:

Soybean Cyst Nematode: A Potential Problem for Nursuries
PDF: 368 kb, 4 pages

A Key to Important Diseases of Common Deciduous Kentucky Landscape and Forest Trees


John R. Hartman1, Jody M. Thompson2, Julie W. Beale3 and Sara J. Long3

1Plant Pathologist, University of Kentucky (retired).

2Forest Health Specialist, Kentucky Division of Forestry, jody.thompson@ky.gov

3Plant Disease Diagnosticians, University of Kentucky.

 

 

Instructions:  Select the tree that you are examining from the following choices. After selecting the appropriate tree, choose from the disease descriptions listed below the selected tree. Choose the description that most closely matches what you see on the tree.

 

Ash

  1. 1) Signs or symptoms on the foliage:  Leaflets with brown spots, blotches, or dead patches; fallen leaflets may litter the ground around the tree when disease is active in the spring.  ………………………………………………………………………….  Ash anthracnose
  2. 2) Signs or symptoms on the branches:  Twigs and branches dead, bark may turn a reddish color with gray areas.  …………………………………………..  Botryosphaeria canker

Cherry

  1. 1) Signs or symptoms on the foliage:  Leaflets with small, circular brown to black spots; may cause leaves to turn yellow and fall prematurely.  ………………..  Cherry leaf spot
  2. 2) Signs or symptoms on twigs and branches:  Twigs and branches with large lumpy black swellings; (Found mainly on flowering Prunus spp., i.e., flowering cherry, flowering plum, etc.)  ….………………………………….……………………………..  Black knot

Crabapple

  1. 1) Signs or symptoms on the foliage:  Leaves with olive-green to black surface lesions later turning dark brown.  Leaves turn yellow and fall from the tree.  …….……………..  Scab
  2. 2) Signs or Symptoms on the foliage:  Leaves with a white powdery growth on the surface; leaves sometimes curled, deformed or stretched.  ……………………… Powdery mildew
  3. 3) Signs or symptoms on leaves, fruits, and shoots:  Leaves with circular reddish-orange spots; shoot tips swollen with roughened growth on the swollen areas; fruits with roughened orange lesion, usually on the calyx end.  …….  Cedar-apple and -quince rust
  4. 4) Signs or symptoms on twigs or branches:  In spring and early summer branch tips die and are bent over with blackened, dead leaves (crabapple, flowering pear).  ……..  Fire blight

Dogwood

  1. 1) Signs or symptoms on the foliage:  In springtime, purple to brown dead blotches generally along leaf veins, or sometimes as isolated leaf spots or along the leaf margin.  New shoots may be attacked and killed.  ……………………………….…  Anthracnose
  2. 2) Signs or symptoms on the foliage:  In summer, leaves may yellow somewhat or develop purple blotches.  Newest leaves develop a white, powdery growth on the leaf and shoot surface.  Later, leaves may be drooped faded, and curled.  ……………  Powdery Mildew
  3. 3) Signs or symptoms on the lower trunk and roots:  Tree declining and dying, loosened bark may be observed at the base of the tree.  Cutting into the lower trunk may reveal reddish brown staining under the bark in the root collar region.  If roots are dug up and examined, they may appear dark and decayed.  …………………  Phytophthora root rot

Elm

  1. 1) Symptoms at first on isolated branches:  Branches, dying or dead with curled yellow or brown leaves, often on one side of the tree.  Disease may spread to other parts of the tree, eventually killing the entire tree.  Examination of wood of affected branches reveals a dark brown staining of the wood.  ……………….……..  Dutch elm disease
  2. 2) Symptoms on the trunk or large limbs:  Bark with a water soaked streak due to wetness exuding from a wound, bark sometimes bleached, often a slimy pink, yellow, or whitish matrix is associated with the wetness.  ……………….  Bacterial wetwood
  3. 3) Symptom generally affects the whole tree:  Tree fades to yellow and eventually dies.  Examination of wood of affected branches reveals light brown staining under the bark.  ………………………………………………………………….…  Elm yellows

Magnolia

  1. 1) Symptoms on foliage:  White powdery growth develops on leaf surface during summertime.  …………………………………………………….  Powdery mildew
  2. 2) Symptoms on foliage:  In winter or early spring, leaf edges of evergreen magnolia leaves turn brown  ………………………………………………..….Winter drying

Maple

  1. 1) Symptoms on foliage:  Leaves with dark brown spots and blotches appearing in springtime.  See description under Dogwood.  ………………………..  Anthracnose
  2. 2) Symptoms on foliage:  In summer, black, slightly raised somewhat circular spots develop on leaves.  Spots resemble droplets of tar.  …………………………  Tar spot
  3. 3) Symptoms on foliage:  In late summer, leaves show marginal leaf burning.  See description under Oak.  ……………………………………….  Bacterial leaf scorch
  4. 4) Symptoms on limbs or branches:  Leaves on individual branches or limbs, often on one side of the tree, turn brown and die.  Branch and limb dieback may continue until after a few months or a year the entire tree may die.  Cuts made into the wood of affected limbs reveals streaks of a dark, greenish black stain.  …….  Verticillium wilt

Oak

  1. 1) Symptoms on foliage:  Leaves with brown spots and blotches, often along the veins, appearing in springtime.  See description under Dogwood.  …………..  Anthracnose
  2. 2) Symptoms on foliage:  Leaves abnormally yellow, especially between the veins.  Leaf spot or dead areas may develop in yellowed leaves.  ………………  Iron deficiency
  3. 3) Symptoms on foliage:  In late summer, leaves on individual branches or limbs show marginal burning or scorch.  The following spring foliage has normal green color, but scorch symptoms appear again in late summer and affect a few more branches.  After several years, late summer scorch appears in the entire tree and twigs and branches begin to die back.  After 10 to 15 years the tree may have so many dead limbs that the tree needs to be removed.  …………………………………..….  Bacterial leaf scorch
  4. 4) Symptoms on limbs or branches:  Smooth, dark gray patches may develop where on affected limbs, trunk, or branches of declining trees.  ……….…  Hypoxylon canker

Redbud

  1. 1) Symptoms on limbs or branches:  In summer, all the leaves on a portion of a single branch suddenly turn brown.  Close examination of the region where the dead branch part meets with the still live branch part may reveal a sunken canker.  By peeling back the bark in that region, the creamy white live tissue can be contrasted with the brown, dead tissue.  This disease may also appear on the trunk, often associated with Pruning activity or wounds from prior years.  ……….…….  Botryosphaeria canker
  2. 2) Symptoms on limbs or branches:  Leaves on individual branches or limbs, often on one side of the tree, turn brown and die.  See description under maple.  ……………………………………………………………………….  Verticillium wilt

Sycamore

  1. 1) Symptoms on foliage:  Leaves with brown spots and blotches in springtime.  Tree may appear defoliated in spring, especially in the lower canopy, but re-foliates in summer.  See description under Dogwood.  ……………………………………….  Anthracnose
  2. 2) Symptoms on foliage:  In late summer, leaves on individual branches or limbs show marginal burning or scorch.  Over several years, branches and limbs may die back.  See description under Oak.  …………………………………….  Bacterial leaf scorch

Tulip Poplar

  1. 1) Symptoms on foliage:  General yellowing of foliage in the tree and premature leaf fall often appearing in late summer.  ……..……  Physiological response to dry weather
  2. 2) Symptoms on limbs or branches:  All of the leaves on individual branches or limbs wilt, turn brown and die, often just on one side of the tree.  See description under Maple.  ……………………………………………………………….  Verticillium wilt

Trees, general

  1. 1) Signs appear on twigs, branches or trunk:  Greenish gray growth on bark surface which may appear crusty or may be growing flat on the bark.  …………………………  Lichens
  2. 2) Signs or symptoms on the trunk:  Mushrooms or fungal conks found on the trunk, sometimes at the base or often higher up on the tree.  …………………..….  Trunk decay

This Key addresses only the most common diseases of several common Kentucky trees.  There are many additional diseases of these trees that occur less frequently than those listed, or that might require microscopic examination or laboratory tests.  To confirm your field diagnosis, contact your County Extension Office.  Extension agents with trees needing additional tests are backed up by the U.K. Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory.  The following links may be helpful for learning to recognize tree diseases in more detail.

 

Anthracnose

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/ppa/ppa17/ppa17.pdf

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/ext_files/PPFShtml/PPFS-OR-W-6.pdf

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/extension/KPN%20Site%20Files/pdf/KPN1232.pdf

 

Apple/Crabapple Scab

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/ppa/ppa24/ppa24.pdf

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/extension/KPN%20Site%20Files/pdf/KPN1197.pdf

 

Armillaria Root Rot

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/ext_files/PPFShtml/PPFS-OR-W-5.pdf

 

Bacterial Leaf Scorch

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/ext_files/PPFShtml/PPFS-OR-W-12.pdf

 

Bacterial Wetwood

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/extension/KPN%20Site%20Files/pdf/KPN1207.pdf

 

Black Knot of Prunus spp.

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/extension/KPN%20Site%20Files/pdf/KPN1223.pdf

 

Cankers

http://www.uky.edu/Ag/kpn/kpn_07/pn070716.htm#shacan

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/extension/KPN%20Site%20Files/pdf/KPN1190.pdf

 

Cedar Rusts

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/extension/KPN%20Site%20Files/pdf/KPN1191.pdf

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/extension/KPN%20Site%20Files/pdf/KPN1243.pdf

 

Dutch Elm Disease

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/ext_files/PPFShtml/PPFS-OR-W-2.pdf

 

Fire Blight

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/ppa/ppa34/ppa34.pdf

 

Hypoxylon Canker

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/extension/KPN%20Site%20Files/kpn_05/pn051010.htm#shastr

 

Iron Deficiency

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/id/id84/id84.htm

 

Lichens, Sooty Mold

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/ext_files/PPFShtml/PPFS-MISC-3.pdf

 

Physiological Leaf Yellowing

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/extension/KPN%20Site%20Files/pdf/KPN1239.pdf

 

Powdery mildew

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/ext_files/PPFShtml/PPFS-OR-W-13.pdf

 

Tar Spot http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/extension/KPN%20Site%20Files/kpn_06/pn060807.htm#shamap

Verticillium Wilt

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/ppa/ppa18/ppa18.pdf

http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/extension/KPN%20Site%20Files/pdf/KPN1240.pdf

 

 

Preemergence herbicide application – NOW!

Don’t let this spring-like weather fool you — winter is
coming.  Most container nurseries are well into winter preparations,
including getting ready to cover over-wintering structures.  It is
important to apply a preemergence herbicide before covering (else you
will grow a mighty fine crop of bittercress over the winter).  BUT —
it is very important to allow adequate time between  the herbicide
application and covering the houses.   Two to three weeks is
generally required.  If covered too soon, the herbicides may
volatilize inside the structure resulting in crop injury and worker exposure.

If you forget to use a preemergence herbicide this winter — please
send me a photo in the spring.  I’m always looking for a great shot
for my “I told ya so” file. 🙂

Joe Neal

Joseph C. Neal
Professor and Extension Specialist — Weed Science
Department of Horticultural Science
262 Kilgore Hall
Box 7609, NCSU
Raleigh, NC 27695-7609
919-515-9379 (phone)
919-515-7747 (fax)
joe_neal@ncsu.edu
http://cals.ncsu.edu/hort_sci/people/faculty/pages/neal.php

FREE Irrigation Webinars by The Water Education Alliance

The Water Education Alliance for Horticulture is working with University of Florida Cooperative Extension, OFA, FNGLA, and the German grower association Zentralverband Gartenbau and several experts at universities and companies on topics to help growers conserve, recirculate, and treat irrigation water.

 

Announcements in your e-magazines or grower association newsletters would be much appreciated (if you can make repeated announcements as new webinars are coming up, even better J!).

 

Registration is free at watereducationalliance.org (click on “workshops”), and 45-minute presentations will run at noon EDT on the following Tuesdays:

 

Topic Presenter

29-Nov

Best Management Practices for water conservation Tom Yeager (University of Florida)

6-Dec

Biology of waterborne pathogens Gary Chastagner (Washington State University)

13-Dec

A Systems Approach for ManagingPhytophthora Diseases in Nurseries: the Importance of Water. Jennifer Parke (Oregon State University)

20-Dec

Monitoring water quality Paul Fisher (University of Florida)

10-Jan

Filtration and avoiding clogging of irrigation lines (Dramm Water)

17-Jan

Surface cleaning and sanitation Warren Copes (USDA-ARS)

24-Jan

Algae control and pond management Ken Wagner (Water Resources Services)

31-Jan

Pro and cons of water disinfection techniques: A European perspective Walter Wohanka (Geisenheim Research Center, Germany)

7-Feb

Designing water treatment systems Paul Fisher (University of Florida)

Top 10 Nursery Production Integrated Pest Management Practices in the Southeast

Anthony V. LeBude3

Matthew Chappell1

Jean Williams-Woodward2

Amy Fulcher4

Sarah White5

Steve Frank6

Joe Neal7

To download an Adobe pdf of this file, visit http://www.caes.uga.edu/Publications/displayPDF.cfm?pk_ID=7976

Integrated pest management (IPM) is a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks. One hundred and seventy-eight horticultural producers were surveyed in 2009-10 to determine the IPM practices used by growers in the southeastern U.S. Growers were asked a series of questions about monitoring or scouting for pests, prevention practices or interventions used to control pests. For each of the 230 questions asked, growers could answer whether they used the practice “Always,” “Often,” “Rarely” or “Never.”

Below are 10 notable practices that have a high potential impact on southeastern ornamental plant production and the combined percentage of growers that use them “Always” or “Often.”

(more…)