Skip to Content

National IPM Webinar finds a home at North Carolina State University

By: Steve Frank – Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University; and

Kelly Ivors – Associate Professor and Extension Specialist, Department of Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University


The National IPM Webinar series was started in 2011 by Dr. Scott Ludwig at Texas A&M but is now run by Drs. Kelly Ivors and Steve Frank at NC State.  The webinar series is designed to provide timely information to the green industry through monthly seminars on the production and maintenance of ornamental plants.  The webinar series invites extension specialists from around the county to speak on topics important to the nursery greenhouse, and landscape industry with particular emphasis on issues relevant to the Southeast.  This provides an opportunity for green industry professionals to learn in-depth information from the specialists conducting research on a particular pest or horticultural issue.

The webinars are live presentations in which the presenter speaks while showing power point slides on screen.  The webinars last about 40 minutes then audience members can ask questions through a microphone (if they have one) or by typing their question.  The webinars are presented on a level that is instructive to growers, extension agents, and even specialists that need to learn about a particular topic.  Since just one topic is covered, specialists have the time to cover topics more thoroughly than in other extension outlets.  In addition, since the presenters are active researchers, the audience may hear about efficacy data or other management information that is not published and thus would not be available to specialists who normally give presentations in their state.

In the inaugural webinar held January 5, 2012 Kelly Ivors discussed the new boxwood disease Box Blight on which she is the US expert (  Kelly had nearly 300 people participate in her seminar and 2400 more access the webinar since then.  The February webinar was about new research in the management of ambrosia beetles given by Steve Frank (  Both webinars were attended by growers, industry personnel, county extension agents, and extension specialists.  The March Webinar titled “‘Bark with a Bite’ Bark handling and what to watch out for”will be presented by Dr. Ted Bilderback March 8th at 11 am EST.

Webinars are typically scheduled for the first Thursday of each month starting at 11 am EST.  Announcements are sent out via a listserve.  This is not a discussion list. It is only used to send out information about  the webinar series.  You can sign up for the list serve by going to  Simply enter your email address in the field at the bottom of the screen and click subscribe. Past webinars are posted online with audio so you can watch them at your convenience.  Links will be sent out via the list serve prior to each session.

To participate in a webinar click on the link sent out via the list serve (e.g.  You will be able to enter the session starting at 10 am EST on the day it occurs.  This allows time for trouble shooting if necessary but the actual webinar will not start until 11 am EST.  You do not need any special software just an up-to-date browser and internet connection.  In order to test that your system requirements are acceptable, visit the Configuration Room linked on

This new series provides a great opportunity to get up-to-date and timely information relevant to improving IPM in your business.  I hope you will consider joining webinar sessions that are pertinent to your business or accessing online at your convenience.  These webinars could also make good tools for training employees.  Due to budget cuts and new technology the nature of extension is changing.  At North Carolina State University we are staying ahead of the curve so you can too.


The IPM Webinar Series received initial sponsorship from many state organizations including:

.           Alabama Nursery and Landscape Association

.           Louisiana Nursery and Landscape Association

.           North Carolina Nursery and Landscape Association

.           North Carolina Commercial Flower Growers Association

.           Northeast Texas Nursery Growers Association

.           South Carolina Greenhouse Growers Association

.           South Carolina Nursery & Landscape Association

.           Southeast Texas Nursery Growers Association

.           Texas Nursery and Landscape Association

.           The Tennessee Nursery and Landscape Association

.           Virginia Flower Growers Association


New Downy Mildew Affecting Impatiens!!!

Jean Williams-Woodward, UGA Extension Plant Pathologist
A relatively new downy mildew disease is infecting impatiens (Impatiens walleriana), a shade-tolerant, flowering annual plant that is a staple in landscapes. Downy mildew on impatiens caused by Plasmopara obducens was first seen in 2004 and it has shown up sporadically in the US since then, primarily in the northeastern US. However, this disease is currently devastating nursery crops and landscape plantings in central and southern Florida. Several factors may be the cause of the outbreak, including the movement of infected plants within the ornamental trade and the mild winter in Florida that has kept impatiens in the landscape longer than usual, which has provided an overwintering site for the pathogen. Infected plants often show downward curling leaves, small new growth, reduced flowering and a leaf stippling pattern that resembles spider mite feeding injury. This downy mildew is a prolific spore-producer. Sporangia can be seen on the leaf underside in cooler weather. Eventually, infected plants defoliate and may die. Oospores (survival spores) have been seen within the stems of infected plants in New England states that could allow the pathogen to survive within a landscape bed.


In response to this disease outbreak, it may be advisable for growers and landscapers to limit impatiens orders for spring sales and use begonias or New Guinea impatiens as replacement plants as these are not susceptible to infection. If plugs are coming from Florida growers, supplies of impatiens may be limited. We don’t know how the disease will progress during our hot, summer months; however, past experience with this disease in a few states suggests that the pathogen stops producing spores and infecting plants during hot weather. One of the main concerns for growers is that although they may be able to reduce infection and symptom development within their operation through preventive fungicide applications, once these plants go out into the landscape, the disease may cause severe losses for their customers in the spring and fall as fungicide use is often not continued in landscapes. Impatiens downy mildew infection can be reduced through fungicide drenches (28-day interval) or sprays (7-day interval) of Subdue MAXX (mefenoxam), Adorn (fluopicolide), Vital (potassium phosphite), Protect T/O (mancozeb), Pageant (pyraclostrobin + boscalid), Disarm (fluoxastrobin), Segway (cyazofamid), Stature SC (dimethomorph), FenStop (fenamidone) and Heritage (azoxystrobin) plus Capsil as a surfactant. Aliette (fosetyl-Al) has not provided control of this disease in several trials. Fungicide resistance development is a real concern for downy mildew diseases, so rotate fungicides making no more than two consecutive applications of the same fungicide or a fungicide with the same mode of action (with the same FRAC code).


Since most downy mildew diseases are blown northward from southern regions during storms, it may be only a matter of time before this disease shows up in Georgia and other southeastern states. If you have questions, please contact me at

Shade Trees for Georgia


Matthew R. Chappell, UGA Extension Horticulturist
Kim D. Coder, UGA Professor of Tree Biology & Health Care and
Gary Peiffer, DeKalb County, GA ANR Extension Agent

Shade trees are a staple of Southern landscapes and include a variety of species, forms and seasonal appeal. In the Southeastern U.S., shade trees are used most often to provide relief from the summer sun and heat. Additionally, shade trees can be utilized to channel summer breezes to desired locations, add monetary value to a property, define outdoor spaces, and improve landscape sustainability by reducing soil erosion, decreasing storm water flows, increasing rainwater infiltration and increasing wildlife habitat.

In urban and suburban landscapes, tree selection is typically based on two criteria: (1) fast growth to provide quick shade on sparse new home sites and (2) small to medium mature size to accommodate small lot sizes. Many trees are advertised as “fast growing,” yet mature size is not often advertised by the seller or inquired into by the buyer. Thus, fast growing, large trees can quickly overpower a small landscape in an urban setting. The following information will assist homeowners in making informed decisions when selecting fast growing shade trees for urban and suburban environments.

To read the entire publication, please visit:

Safe Procurement and Production Manual (Oregon State)

Manual outlines pest and pathogen prevention methods

The Oregon Association of Nurseries has published the “Safe Procurement and Production Manual,” a 100-page guide to producing healthy nursery stock by using a systems approach. The book is available online now as a PDF download, at no cost. A print version will be made available to growers later this summer.

When it comes to preventing the introduction and spread of plant pests and pathogens, a proactive approach that intelligently targets areas of highest risk is better than reacting to things as they happen. This easy-to-follow book helps growers evaluate their own nursery operations. It contains best practices that are proven to be effective at reducing risks from plant pests and pathogens. Different chapters of the book address the various components of plant production, from propagation to final shipment.

» Download the Safe Procurement and Production Manual (PDF).

BIG NEWS – 8 Species Added to P. ramorum Host List!!!


Domestic quarantine for Phytophthora ramorum 


January 25, 2012 

This Federal Order is issued pursuant to the regulatory authority provided by the Plant Protection Act of June 20, 2000, as amended, Section 412(a), 7 U.S.C. 7712(a), which authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to prohibit or restrict the movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant part, or article, if the Secretary determines the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent the dissemination of a plant pest within the United States and is likewise issued pursuant to the regulations promulgated under the Plant Protection Act found at 7 CFR §301.92 et seq.

The Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) considers it necessary in order to prevent the spread and dissemination of P. ramorum, to add eight new plant species to the list of associated plant taxa. Additionally, the APHIS administrator has determined it is necessary to move one currently regulated species Cinnamomum camphora from the list of associated plant taxa to the list of proven host plant taxa. The movement of nursery stock of these plant taxa from the States of California, Oregon, and Washington will now be regulated in accordance with this Federal Order and the P. ramorum regulations located at 7 CFR §301.92. Nurseries in the regulated states containing these newly listed plants must operate under a compliance agreement.

The State Regulatory Agencies in the United States, Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and the United Kingdom’s Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs, Food and Environment Research Agency (DEFRA /FERA) have identified additional plants associated with P. ramorum that were not previously recorded. Details on these detections are as follows:

Additions to Associated Plant Taxa: 

Ilex cornuta 

• Family: Aquifoliaceae

• Common names: Buford holly, Chinese holly, horned holly

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from USA


Illicium parviflorum 

• Family: Schisandraceae

• Common names: Yellow anise

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from USA


Larix kaempferi 

• Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)

• Common names: Japanese larch

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis, dieback and canker

• Notes: Report from United Kingdom, Ireland


Magnolia denudata 

• Family: Magnoliaceae (magnolia family)

• Common names: lily tree

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from Canada, United Kingdom


Mahonia nervosa 

• Family: Berberidaceae (Mahonia)

• Common names: Creeping Oregon grape

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from USA


Molinadendron sinaloense 

• Family: Hamamelidaceae

• Common names: nil

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from USA


Trachelospermum jasminoides 

• Family: Apocynaceae (milkweed family)

• Common names: Star jasmine, Confederate jasmine

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from USA


Veronica spicata Syn. Pseudolysimachion spicatum 

• Family: Scrophulariaceae

• Common names: Spiked speedwell

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis

• Notes: Report from USA


Moved to the Proven Host Plant Taxa from Associated Host Plant Taxa: 

Cinnamomum camphora 

• Family: Lauraceae

• Common names: Camphor tree

• Symptoms: leaf necrosis, canker

• Notes: Report from USA from Landscape in California


Effective March 1, 2012 any nurseries within the regulated and quarantined areas containing these newly listed associated plants must be properly inspected, sampled and tested in order to be able to move any plants interstate.

————- For more information contact your state Department of Agriculture or your State Nursery Inspector —————–

Pest Management Strategic Plan for Container and Field-Produced Nursery Crops

PMSP Authors:
Craig Adkins, Greg Armel, Matthew Chappell, J.C. Chong, Steven Frank, Amy Fulcher, Frank Hale, William Klingeman III, Kelly Ivors, Anthony LeBude, Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac, Sarah White, Jean Williams-Woodward, Alan Windham

Get the whole publication here:

And an abstract is below.


Plant damage by pests is a predominant source of revenue loss for the nursery industry. In North Carolina, the green industry reported annual losses of $91,000,000 due to insects and diseases (NCDA, 2005). Losses due to plant disease in Georgia in 2007 were estimated to be $43,410,000 for nurseries (Martinez, 2008).

Plant health is an important aspect of Integrated Pest Management (IPM). In many cases, healthy plants experiencing low levels of stress have fewer pest concerns than similar plants experiencing higher stress levels. Stresses can be categorized into biotic and abiotic stresses. Abiotic stresses include the quality of the substrate and its pH, water quality, irrigation timing and quantity, light, temperature, growing area design, mineral nutrient concentrations and availability, and environmental events (e.g., hail and wind). Biotic stresses can be caused by weeds, insects, nematodes, pathogens (e.g., fungi, bacteria, phytoplasmas, oomycetes, and viruses) and vertebrates. Stresses can be cumulative over the production cycle, such that small problems early in production can become larger problems later during time of sale. Identifying and acting, or preventing these stress problems early is the best strategy to maintain plant health. Always try to eliminate which “normal” production practices might contribute to overall poor plant health, while simultaneously identifying and developing practices that improve plant health.

This comprehensive 197 page publication is based on a workshop held in 2009 where nursery crop producers from five states (GA, KY, NC, SC, and TN) identified pest priorities for nursery production. Growers ranked insect, disease, and weed pests prior to meeting as a focus group. This publication was created to serve as a comprehensive resource to identify not only research priorities in the area of pest management; but also important weed, insect and disease control methods.

USDA Unveils New Plant Hardiness Zone Map

January 25, 2012
WASHINGTON—The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) today released the new version of its Plant Hardiness Zone Map (PHZM), updating a useful tool for gardners and researchers for the first time since 1990 with greater accuracy and detail. The new map—jointly developed by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service(ARS) and Oregon State University‘s (OSU) PRISM Climate Group—is available online ARS is the chief intramural scientific research agency of USDA.
For the first time, the new map offers a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based interactive format and is specifically designed to be Internet-friendly. The map website also incorporates a “find your zone by ZIP code” function. Static images of national, regional and state maps also have been included to ensure the map is readily accessible to those who lack broadband Internet access.
“This is the most sophisticated Plant Hardiness Zone Map yet for the United States,” said Catherine Woteki, USDA Under Secretary for Research, Education and Economics. “The increases in accuracy and detail that this map represents will be extremely useful for gardeners and researchers.”
Plant hardiness zone designations represent the average annual extreme minimum temperatures at a given location during a particular time period. They do not reflect the coldest it has ever been or ever will be at a specific location, but simply the average lowest winter temperature for the location over a specified time. Low temperature during the winter is a crucial factor in the survival of plants at specific locations.
The new version of the map includes 13 zones, with the addition for the first time of zones 12 (50-60 degrees Fahrenheit) and 13 (60-70 degrees Fahrenheit). Each zone is a 10-degree Fahrenheit band, further divided into 5-degree Fahrenheit zones “A” and “B.”
To help develop the new map, USDA and OSU requested that horticultural and climatic experts review the zones in their geographic area, and trial versions of the new map were revised based on their expert input.
Compared to the 1990 version, zone boundaries in this edition of the map have shifted in many areas. The new map is generally one 5-degree Fahrenheit half-zone warmer than the previous map throughout much of the United States. This is mostly a result of using temperature data from a longer and more recent time period; the new map uses data measured at weather stations during the 30-year period 1976-2005. In contrast, the 1990 map was based on temperature data from only a 13-year period of 1974-1986.
However, some of the changes in the zones are a result of new, more sophisticated methods for mapping zones between weather stations. These include algorithms that considered for the first time such factors as changes in elevation, nearness to large bodies of water, and position on the terrain, such as valley bottoms and ridge tops. Also, the new map used temperature data from many more stations than did the 1990 map. These advances greatly improved the accuracy and detail of the map, especially in mountainous regions of the western United States. In some cases, they resulted in changes to cooler, rather than warmer, zones.
While about 80 million American gardeners, as well as those who grow and breed plants, are the largest users of the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map, many others need this hardiness zone information. For example, the USDA Risk Management Agency uses the USDA plant hardiness zone designations to set some crop insurance standards. Scientists use the plant hardiness zones as a data layer in many research models such as modeling the spread of exotic weeds and insects.

CEU/WORKSHOP for Growers — Nursery and Greenhouse: Water Treatment and Quality Workshop

Sarah White, Clemson University


When/Where: Davidson and Huntersville, North Carolina. January 26 2012, 9 a.m. to 4.15 p.m.

You will learn how to:

  • Manage plant pathogens, algae, biofilm, and salt problems in irrigation water
  • Use chemical or cultural approaches to treat water, based on presentations from industry and university experts


Benefit from:

  • Pesticide CEU’s (application in process for NC and SC)
  • Booklet provided on water treatment—free with registration
  • Touring two leading growers: Turtle Creek Nursery and Metrolina Greenhouses

Who should attend: Personnel from nurseries, greenhouses and associated industries, extension agents

Low Registration Cost: Only $44 per person if pre-registered by 12 January. $59 after 12 January. See attached registration form for details. Preregistration is required for lunch.



9.00 Meet at Turtle Creek Nursery, 12037 Mooresville Road, Davidson, NC 28036; Tel 704 663-3154

9.00-9.15 Introductions and goals for the day (Paul Fisher, University of Florida [UF]); Welcome from North Carolina State University (NCSU) and Clemson University

9.15-10.30 Tour Turtle Creek Nursery—including presentation on management of algae by NCSU

10.30-11.00 Drive to Metrolina Greenhouses, 16400 Huntersville-Concord Road, Huntersville, NC 28078; Tel 704 948 3974

11.00-11.30 Biology of water-borne plant pathogens (Kelly Ivors, NCSU)

11.30-12.30 Selecting water treatment options (Paul Fisher, UF)

12.30-1.30 Lunch—including displays by water treatment companies

1.30-1.40 Website resources (Rosa Raudales, UF)

1.40-2.00 Algaecides for managing species of Phytophthora (Steve Jeffers, Clemson University)

2.00-2.30 Ecological alternatives for water treatment (Sarah White, Clemson University)

2.45-4.15 Tour Metrolina Greenhouses—including presentation on water use in herbaceous propagation (Jim Faust, Clemson University) and managing salt, pH, and alkalinity (Brian Whipker, NCSU)


Speakers and Topics

Algae management in irrigation ponds, 30 mins; Rob Richardson, Ph.D., North Caroline State University

Best management practices will be described for management of irrigation catchment basins.  A combination of pond design, managing nutrient levels, algaecides, and cultural practices reduce algae levels in ponds.  These BMPs can improve the quality of water applied to nursery crops and make it more feasible to reduce runoff of water, fertilizers, and pesticides from the nursery property.


Biology of waterborne plant pathogens, 30 mins; Kelly Ivors, Ph.D., North Carolina State University

Dr. Ivors will discuss the biology and ecology of plant pathogens that are problematic in irrigation water, mainly focusing on Phytophthora and Pythium species. The life cycle, survivability, and various spore types of these pathogens will be reviewed in order to understand their risks associated with ornamental plant health.


Selecting water treatment options, 60 mins; Paul Fisher, Ph.D., University of Florida

A challenge for growers is how to select from and implement several options for controlling plant pathogens and other water-related issues.  Chemical and physical technologies (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, copper ionization, copper salts, filtration, ultraviolet radiation) will be discussed, in terms of efficacy, ease of use, interactions with water chemistry and fertilizers, and installation and operation cost.


Rosa Raudales, Ph.D. student and research assistant, University of Florida

Website resources for growers on control of water quality issues, including plant pathogens, algae, biolfim, alkalinity, and salts are available at the website.


Algaecides for managing species of Phytophthora, 20 mins; Steve Jeffers, Ph.D., Clemson University

New research will be presented on the effect of pond algaecides on Phytophthora levels in irrigation water.


Ecological Alternatives for Water Treatment, 30 mins; Sarah A. White, Ph.D., Clemson University

Protecting and enhancing the quality of water used to irrigate ornamental crops is increasingly essential. Contaminant removal from nursery and greenhouse water via ecological (non-chemical) treatment options is one means of improving water quality while reducing operation dependence on chemical treatments.  The basic principles controlling agrichemical, sediment, and biotic (pathogen, weed, etc.) contaminant removal by vegetative buffers, constructed wetlands, floating wetlands, and slow sand filters will be discussed.


Water Testing for Nutrients, Brian Whipker, NC State University, 20 mins
The most important elements to measure when it comes to chemical water quality are pH, EC and alkalinity levels.  These factors affect plant nutrition, and also interact with treatment technologies for plant pathogens.  A quick demonstration will show you how easy it is to monitor these parameters in house.


Water use in herbaceous propagation, 20 mins; James Faust, Ph.D. Clemson University

Over-application of water is a major cause of disease issues and crop losses during propagation.  Learn how to fine tune your irrigation practices to only provide the water your crop needs, using tools such as VPD and measuring the volume of applied water.

Protecting and enhancing the quality of water used to irrigate ornamental crops is increasingly essential. Contaminant removal from nursery and greenhouse water via ecological (non-chemical) treatment options is one means of improving water quality while reducing operation dependence on chemical treatments.  The basic principles controlling agrichemical, sediment, and biotic (pathogen, weed, etc.) contaminant removal by vegetative buffers, constructed wetlands, floating wetlands, and slow sand filters will be discussed.


Water Testing for Nutrients, Brian Whipker, NC State University, 20 mins

The most important elements to measure when it comes to chemical water quality are pH, EC and alkalinity levels.  These factors affect plant nutrition, and also interact with treatment technologies for plant pathogens.  A quick demonstration will show you how easy it is to monitor these parameters in house.



Crop Profile Container and Field-Produced Nursery Crops in GA, KY, NC, SC, and TN

Crop Profile Authors:
Craig Adkins, Greg Armel, Matthew Chappell, J.C. Chong, Steven Frank, Amy Fulcher, Frank Hale, William Klingeman III, Kelly Ivors, Anthony LeBude, Joe Neal, Andrew Senesac, Sarah White, Alan Windham, Jean Williams-Woodward
Oh what a document – a one stop shop for basic crop production info and disease, insect and weed control options (including chemical controls)!!!!

Check out the document here:

Or the Table of Contents topics below!


Nursery Crop Production

Introduction to Nursery Crop Production

Table 1. Number of producers, total acreage and value of nursery crops for five southern states

Field Production

Land/Soil Preparation




Container Production



Irrigation: Frequency and uniformity

Irrigation: Water quality retention basins and recycling


Calendar of Worker Activities in Field Nursery

Nursery Crop Production Literature Cited

Key Pest Profiles and Critical Issues: Insect Pests

Key Pest Profiles and Critical Issues: Diseases

General Disease Control Practices for Nursery Ornamentals

Cultural Control Practices

Table 2. Products or treatments used for sanitizing tools, equipment, pots, flats, and surfaces

Disease Resistance

Chemical Control

Plant Profiles for Select Diseases for Container and Field Nurseries

Table 3. Chemicals recommended for Phytophthora and Pythium root rot control

Emerging Diseases

Key Pest Profiles and Critical Issues: Weedy Plants, Liverworts and Algae

Weed Overview

Plant Profiles for Select Weeds1 for Container and Field Nurseries

Select Broadleaf Weedspage2image13560

Select Broadleaf Weed Profiles

Select Grasses and Sedges

Select Weedy Grasses and Sedges

Emerging Weed Species of Concern

Select Emerging Weedy Liverworts and Algae

Chemical Control of Weeds in Container and Field Production

Table 4. Common broadleaf and grass herbicides used in nursery production in the southeastern United States

Listing of Preemergence and Postemergence Chemicals

Table 5. Preemergence Herbicides Labeled for Container Nursery Stock

Table 6. Postemergence Herbicides Labeled for Container Nursery Stock

Weedy Plant Literature Cited and General References