Exciting program and 2 days of tours!
A variety of sustainable pest management strategies are available for nurseries ranging from simple items requiring little investment to major infrastructural changes. This video presents an overview of IPM including sanitation, irrigation and systems approaches to sustainable pest management. More information is available on the project website: http://site.caes.uga.edu/snpp/
For folks in western parts of the state you may have periodical cicadas in your nursery or landscape. Of course this will depend on a number of things including the habitat surrounding your nursery. Areas with a lot of suburban development may have fewer than less disturbed areas.
Cicadas cause damage to trees when they lay eggs in branches. They use a knife-like
Oviposition scar. Photo: Tim Tigner, Virginia Department of Forestry, Bugwood.org
ovipositor (egg inserter) to insert eggs into thin tree branches. This causes slits in the branch that could be 6 inches long or more. This long scar reduces plant aesthetic value but also weakens branches. Scarred branches usually break and fall to the ground or break and remain hanging in the tree but turn brown.
We have found that imidacloprid reduces oviposition in landscape trees. (read the full publication) Females detect the insecticide with their ovipositor so treated trees have fewer scars and the scars are much shorter. Thus branches do not
Flagging branches. Photo: Linda Haugen, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
become as weak so there is less flagging. This is not to say you should treat every tree with imidacloprid. Most landscape trees over a few feet tall can withstand losing many branches with no negative effects on health. Even nursery stock could survive losing branches but may need corrective pruning. Nursery stock can be pruned to remove scarred branches.
Trees that are very valuable could be protected with mesh netting to keep cicadas off (read the full publication). This may apply to specimen trees in landscapes or to particularly expensive nursery trees. Japanese maples may be one species where shape is very important and it would be worth protection of some sort.
The Daylily leafminer is a recent pest from Asia. It was first detected in 2006 but is now spread through much of the Southeast including North Carolina. I spotted some last week on a trip to Georgia. This fly lays its eggs in day lilies and the larvae produce relatively straight, vertical mines. Pruning infested leaves will help prevent the larvae from maturing and infesting new leaves. I do not know of any formal efficacy tests on this pest but other material targeting leafminers such as imidacloprid and pyriproxifen should help. A recent article about this pest is in American Nurseryman.
Cottony Maple Leaf Scale is one of several cottony scales in the genus Pulvinaria. You can find these now on their most common hosts: maple and dogwood. Stand under a tree and look up and you will see cottony masses about the size of a cotton swap stuck to the bottom of leaves. These are the egg masses. They each contain many hundred eggs that are hatching as we speak. The crawlers will settle and feed on the leaves all summer then migrate back to branches in fall before leaf-drop. For more pest updates follow @OrnaPests on Twitter or keep an eye on the ecoipm.com blog from North Carolina State University.
The April Update includes:
K. L. Ivors, L. W. Lacey, and M. Ganci
Dept. Plant Pathology, North Carolina State Univ.
455 Research Drive, Mills River, NC 28759
This trial evaluated the efficacy of several commercially available fungicides for preventive activity against boxwood blight caused by Cylindrocladium buxicola. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design consisting of four replications of six 1-gal English boxwood plants per treatment on a container pad at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station in Mills River, NC. Treatments were applied as foliar sprays until runoff with a CO2-pressurized backpack sprayer equipped with a handheld boom and a single, hollow-cone nozzle (TXVS-26) delivering 50-60 psi. Treatments were applied on 13 Sep, 28 Sep, and 13 Oct. Inoculum was prepared by flooding Petri-dishes of 10 day cultures of the pathogen growing on PDA. Plants were spray inoculated with 5,000 spores per ml until runoff one day post treatment on 14 Sep, and again on 30 Sep, two days after the second fungicide treatment with 8,000 spores per ml until run-off. Disease assessments were conducted on 1, 16 and 26 Oct. Percent leaf area diseased was recorded using the standard Horsfall-Barratt scale. Disease pressure was not high enough to evaluate percent leaf drop or percent stem streaking. AUDPC for percent leaf area diseased across the entire timeframe of the trial was calculated. Air temperatures during the trial was suboptimal for high rates of infection with average daily high and low temperatures of 77.7 and 55.4°F for Sept; and 66.3 and 43.5°F for Oct.
For the entire article – click here.
Regulatory Plant Issues: What You Must Do to Sell, Import or Export Live Plants from the State of Kansas
Jeff Vogel, Kansas Department of Agriculture
How do you stay up to date with plant quarantines, emerging pest threats and noxious weed lists? It can be very difficult to keep track of importing/exporting issues as well as other live plant sales concerns. Learn the most important aspects of regulatory plant issues from the state perspective.
Jeff is the Program Manager for the Plant Protection and Weed Control Program for the Kansas Department of Agriculture. His office works to ensure the health of the state’s native and cultivated plants by excluding or controlling destructive pests, diseases and weeds. His staff examines and analyzes pest conditions in crop fields, rangelands, greenhouses and nurseries.
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