UGA Extension Publications

Competitiveness of Peanuts: United States versus China
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the competitive position of peanuts for the U.S. in comparison with China at both the national and regional levels in a free trade market for the 1988–93 period. A nonparametic statistical method was used to determine the similarities and differences in economic costs, yield, and net returns to farm management and risks between the two countries. Total economic costs were decomposed further into seed, fertilizer, chemicals, labor, and other expenses. Results indicate that economic costs in peanut production were significantly larger in the U.S. than in China. Peanut production was, however, more profitable in the U.S. than in China if land value and quota rent were not included in U.S. economic costs.
World Peanut Market: An Overview of the Past 30 Years
Despite the increase in its total global production, since the 1970s, peanuts’ share in the total production of vegetable oil and meal has decreased following the emergence of soybeans. In addition, an increasing share of the total production of peanuts has been devoted to food purposes. World-harvested area has changed very little since the 1970s; however, there have been regional and sub-regional shifts. Asia, and especially the People’s Republic of China, has significantly increased its share, while Africa’s share has decreased, affected by the decline of the peanut oil and meal markets. America also has seen a decrease in its share in the world peanut production. On the other hand, since the early 1990s, China, the United States, and Argentina have led the exports of edible peanuts (i.e., peanuts not used for crushing for oil and meal production). The European Union and Asia have remained as the major world importers of peanuts. In addition, while concentration of the export market seems to have increased (when considering the six major exporters), import markets appear more fragmented. Finally, world real peanut prices have continued their decreasing trend since 1995 showing lower variability.
Calibration Method for Sprayers and Other Liquid Applicators
The procedure is based on spraying 1/128 of an acre per nozzle or row spacing and collecting the spray that would be released during the time it takes to spray the area. Because there are 128 ounces of liquid in 1 gallon, this convenient relationship results in ounces of liquid collected being directly equal to the application rate in gallons per acre.
Climate and Weather Information for Georgia Farmers
Sections include ” Weather versus Climate: What is the difference?”, ” Sources of Weather Information” and ” Weather and Climate Information Sites”

Factors to Consider in Selecting a Farm Irrigation System

The majority of agricultural irrigation systems in Georgia fit into one of two broad categories: sprinkler irrigation and micro-irrigation. Sprinkler irrigation systems include center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, permanent set and solid set. Micro-irrigation systems include drip (or trickle) irrigation and micro-sprinklers.

No one system is best for every application. Once you decide to install an irrigation system, you must consider several important factors before deciding which system is best for your situation. These factors include:

crop fuel cost and availability
size and shape of field labor requirements
water source initial cost

In some situations, there may be additional considerations such as whether you own the land or are leasing. You may also own some equipment such as a well or pumping unit and wish to adapt the system to this existing equipment. This publication is intended primarily for the farmer who has made the decision to irrigate and is in the process of deciding what type system will best fit into his or her operation.

Pesticide Storage and Handling
In certain areas of the country, pesticides are showing up where they are not wanted — in the drinking water. Fortunately, there are not widespread reports of pesticides occurring in Georgia drinking water. However, if pesticides are not handled carefully around the farm, they can seep through the ground after a leak or spill or they can enter a well directly during mixing and loading. Pesticides play an important role in agriculture. They have increased farm production and have enabled farmers to manage more acres with less labor. Taking voluntary action to prevent potential pesticide contamination of ground water will help ensure their continued availability for responsible use by farmers.
Petroleum Storage and Handling
A small gasoline leak of one drop per second can often go unnoticed, but it could result in the release of about 400 gallons of gasoline in one year. Not only does this cause economic loss, but it also causes environmental and health problems. Even small amounts of gasoline can enter and contaminate ground and surface water, creating health risks for anyone who drinks it. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, nearly one in four underground storage tanks in the United States may be leaking. The risk of leaking increases dramatically for tanks that are more than 20 years old, those not protected against corrosion and those improperly installed.

Irrigation Scheduling Methods

Irrigation requires a relatively high investment in equipment, fuel, maintenance and labor, but offers a significant potential for increasing net farm income. Frequency and timing of water application have a major impact on yields and operating costs.

To schedule irrigation for most efficient use of water and to optimize production, it is desirable to frequently determine the soil water conditions throughout the root zone of the crop being grown. A number of methods for doing this have been developed and used with varying degrees of success. In comparison to investment in irrigation equipment, these scheduling methods are relatively inexpensive. When properly used and coupled with grower experience, a scheduling method can improve the irrigator’s chances of success. The following discussion covers the working principles of currently used methods for scheduling irrigation.

Granular Applicator Calibration Procedure
Applicators used in granular applications should be calibrated to ensure uniformity and accuracy. An accurate and uniform application can reduce the quantity of an active ingredient required for a given degree of control, benefiting the environment as well as the producer.
Handling of Used Agricultural Chemical Containers
The use of plastic containers for agricultural chemicals is a necessary and important part of everyday agricultural production. However, disposing of these containers is not as straightforward as their initial purchase. This guide is meant to help Georgia’s farmers recycle more of their chemical containers by informing them of recycling opportunities and describing practices that will leave the containers properly cleaned and stored for recycling.
First and Last Frost Dates in Georgia
In many areas of Georgia, cold temperatures in late fall, winter and spring can pose a threat to row crops, fruit trees and horticultural plants. Exposure of sensitive crops to freezing temperatures (below 32o F) can result in significant damage and, in some cases, total crop loss. For example, open peach and blueberry blooms are typically damaged at 28-29 oF and below, although green fruit may be damaged at higher temperatures. Susceptibility to frost depends on the health and growth stage of the plants, and the intensity and duration of the frost events.
Peanut Digger and Combine Efficiency

Consumers demand wholesome, good-tasting peanuts and peanut products. Meeting this demand starts on the farm with growing and harvesting the cleanest and least-damaged peanuts. This publication explains how peanut diggers and combines work and how to adjust them for peak efficiency to produce the highest quality peanuts.

Simulating Crop Rotations in the Coastal Plain with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 (RUSLE2)
Research shows the benefits of using conservation practices such as conservation tillage, vegetated waterways, adding organic soil amendments and reducing tillage operations. The USDA-NRCS (USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service) provides financial assistance opportunities and technical support to help farmers establish these conservation practices on their operations through conservation planning efforts. One of the computer-based conservation planning tools typically used to develop a conservation plan is the RUSLE2 program. NRCS personnel use RUSLE2 to estimate soil erosion and other data that is useful to the conservation planning effort.
Soil Sampling Issues for Precision Management of Crop Production
Soil-sampling and testing is one of the most important operations in crop production. Traditionally, soil samples are collected throughout the field to get an “average” representation of soil characteristics. Recommendations for fertilizer and lime application rates are based on this collective field representation and used to develop a soil fertilization and liming schedule. This procedure leads to positive yield gains only if the high and low yielding areas in the field are close to the average. However, experience has shown that a lot of Georgia fields, even small fields, have high and low-yielding areas that are significantly different from the average yield. As a result, a uniform application rate can leave parts of the field with too little or too much fertilizer and lime.
Plant Susceptibility to Major Nematodes in Georgia
Use this guide to select rotation crops that are non-hosts to damaging populations as one part of a nematode control program. Ideally, the rotation crop should reduce specific nematode populations levels in the soil and not sustain reduced yield or quality because of nematodes present. In order to do this, you need to properly identify the nematodes present in the field through a soil assay, and you need to know which crops are non-hosts to nematodes present in the field.