A. Fungicide resistance profiles in Botrytis cinerea from strawberry
MDL at the University of Georgia, Tifton is now providing fungicide resistance profiles in Botrytis cinerea from strawberry. We accept gray mold samples from flowers, leaves, and fruit. You may send cotton swabs with spores from fruit for analysis as shown below:
- Please send 20 to 40 dead strawberry flowers OR 150 healthy flowers (it is much harder to get the fungus out of healthy flowers) from each strawberry field you would like to have tested. Send as many dead leaves as you like in addition to the flowers. Make sure your specimens (flowers/leaves/fruits/swabs)/ isolates are spread out and represent the entire field.
- Collection of gray mold from fruit, obtain cotton swabs from a local pharmacy. Collect spores with swabs from 10 individual berries with fresh gray mold lesions. Use a fresh cotton swab for each berry and carefully rub one side of the swab on the diseased portion of each berry without getting strawberry juice on the swab. The swab should look lightly gray (lower right). A tiny bit of gray color is sufficient for analysis.
- Please fill the resistant test form and provide the information as much as you can.
- Payment for Botrytis profiling:10 isolates/specimens/samples will be considered as 1 sample and the cost would be $250/sample; if more than 5 samples (50 or more specimens/isolates) it will be $200/sample. After testing, MDL will send an invoice to the submitter via email. As soon as we receive the payment (either credit card or check), we will send the result. Please do not hesitate to contact us/MDL director (#2293867230 or #229386-3070 or email@example.com) if you have any questions about fees or free trial prior to sample submission.
B. Fungicide (QoI) resistance testing for anthracnose from strawberry
MDL is also providing fungicide resistance testing for anthracnose from strawberry. Please send us 10 to 20 symptomatic strawberry fruits that represent the entire field. Place each collected sample (each fruit) separately in a zip-lock bag and label bags clearly so that samples can be differentiated.
Please fill the resistant test form and provide the information as much as you can.
Payment:10 isolates/infected fruits will be considered as 1 sample and the cost would be $100/sample (Only for QoI testing). After testing, MDL will send an invoice to the submitter via email. As soon as we receive the payment (either credit card or check), we will send the result. Please do not hesitate to contact us/MDL director (#2293867230 or #229386-3070 or firstname.lastname@example.org) if you have any questions about fees or free trial prior to sample submission.
Address for the sample submission:
Plant Molecular Diagnostic Lab, Plant Science Building, 2360 Rainwater Rd. Tifton GA 31793
C. All other available test services at MDL (please contact with us prior to sample submission)
|Host||Disease||Pathogen||Fungicide||FRAC code||Test Methods|
|Pecan||Pecan scab||Venturia effusa||Fentin hydroxide||30||Conventional|
|Peanut||Early and late leaf spot||Passalora arachidicola and Nothopassalora personata||Tebuconazole||3||Conventional|
|Watermelon||Fusarium wilt of watermelon||Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum||Thiophanate-methyl||1||Conventional|
|Tomato and Pepper||Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper||Xanthomonas euvesicatoria||Copper||M01||Conventional|
|Southern blight of tomato and pepper
|Early blight of tomato and pepper
|Alternaria solani||QoI (azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin)||11||Conventional/Molecular|
|SDHIs (fluxapyroxad, fluopyram and penthiopyrad)||7||Conventional/Molecular|
|Cucurbits||Gummy stem blight of Cucurbits||Stagonosporopsis spp.||Tebuconazole||3||Conventional|
|Onion||Center rot of onion||Pantoea annanatis||Copper||M01||Conventional/Molecular
|Stone fruits (peach etc.)||Brown rot in stone fruit
|Grape||Grape downy mildew||Plasmopara viticola||Azoxystrobin||11||Conventional/Molecular|
|Carboxylic Acid Amides (CAA)||40||Conventional/Molecular|
|Blueberry||Mummy berry||Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi||Tebuconazole||3||Conventional/Molecular|
Price per sample for single fungicide testing: $120 (1-5 samples); if more than 5 samples, the price will be $100 per sample
Duration: Molecular test method: 1 week; Conventional method: 2-3 weeks
Fungicide testing methods: The appropriate testing method and specific protocols will depend on the specific pathogen and fungicide being tested. In general testing methods are described below:
1) Molecular test: Using target site gene sequencing, isolate will be tested against respective fungicide based on previously published references. Fungal DNA will be extracted using a Qiagen DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Cat# 69104) according to the manufacturer’s instructions from infected samples. Target site (DMI- Cytochrome P450 14α-sterol demethylases; CYP51)/QoI- mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, CYTB) will be amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products will be sequenced and mutation(s) will be identified by comparing with NCBI sequence databases.
2) Conventional plate test: Pure cultures are made from the infected sample on agar plates (or other media), incubated several days, then transferred to other agar plates containing a specific medium amended with a fungicide at different concentrations, then incubated 3 to 6 days depending on pathogen growth to calculate fungicide efficacy.
We may also include more testing methods such as in vitro vs. in vivo bioassay, based on spore germination or micro-colony growth assay etc, depending on the fungicide (e.g., Seyran et al. 2010).